The Mitchell Report

As the former player Todd Zeile told USA Today in a 2002 article discussing the

prevalence of steroids in the game at that time:

The sad part is that the issues I hear discussed are whether (using steroids) is taking away from the level playing field or whether there are long term effects to this stuff. I never hear anybody talking about the morality or the ethics or the integrity of the game. It's cheating in every sense.46

Zeile's views might be held by a largely silent majority of players. The same 2002 USA Today article reported that 79% of active players at the time were in favor of drug testing.47 When survey testing was conducted in 2003 pursuant to baseball's new collective bargaining agreement, some players reportedly initially resisted submitting to drug tests because they knew that their refusal to submit to a test would be counted as a positive for steroid use and they wanted at least 5% of players surveyed to test positive so that random testing would be implemented beginning the next season.

C. The Effects on Young Athletes

The youth of this country and other countries model their behavior after prominent athletes. "Athletes are second only to parents in the extent to which they are admired by children," yet a Kaiser Family Foundation study found that over half of the youth surveyed believed that "it is common for famous athletes to use steroids or other banned substances in order to get an edge on the competition."48

If Major League Baseball players send a message that the illegal use of performance enhancing drugs is acceptable, more young athletes will use these substances as they emulate these prominent figures. This common sense conclusion is well supported by the

46 Mel Antonen, Steroids: Are they worth it?, USA Today, July 8, 2002, at A1.

47 Id.

48 National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, Winning at Any Cost, at 2 (Sept. 2000).