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Official Info

Major League Baseball Replay Review Regulations

  1. Overview

    Video replay review in Major League Baseball (hereafter, "Replay Review") is designed to provide timely review of certain disputed calls in all Championship Season, All–Star and Post–Season games played in the 30 Major League ballparks (and, beginning in 2015, in any ballpark at which a Major League Championship Season game is played). A "call" as described in these Regulations means a judgment by one or more umpires or by the entire crew after conferring with one another (hereafter, the "Umpires") on a specific play, which may consist of an oral pronouncement or physical gesture (or may not, in the case of a "non–call"). Replay Review may be used to reverse or confirm the Umpires' call on the field subject to and in accordance with the terms and conditions described below. Subject to its obligations under its respective Basic Agreements and other agreements with the Major League Baseball Players Association and the World Umpires Association, the Office of the Commissioner reserves the right to rule on any point with respect to Replay Review that is not covered by these Regulations.

  2. Challenging and Reviewing Calls Pursuant to Replay Review

    1. Responsibilities. Each Club's Manager is responsible for invoking challenges under the circumstances described in these Regulations. Crew Chiefs are responsible for determining whether a Manager Challenge is properly and timely made and, in a accordance with Section II.C below, determining whether to review a potential home run call (as defined in Section V.A below) or determining another reviewable play or call on their own initiative. Moreover, prior to the initiation of a Replay Review, the Umpires may confer among themselves at any time and change any call (whether or not the call is reviewable) in accordance with Official Baseball Rule 9.02. If a reviewable call is changed in this fashion, the new call shall be subject to Replay Review as provided in these Regulations.
    2. Manager Challenges
      1. Each Club will receive one (1) Manager Challenge to start each game. A Manager may challenge as many reviewable calls within a single play as he desires using one challenge. If the Replay Official does not overturn any of the calls challenged by a Club, the Club will lose the ability to challenge any additional play or call in the game. If the Replay Official overturns any call challenged by a Club (even if he upholds other challenged calls), the Club may challenge one (1) additional play or call in the game. A Club will not retain the right to challenge any play or call after it uses a second Manager Challenge regardless of whether any of the calls within the second play are overturned.
      2. A Club's Manager is the only person authorized and permitted to request or initiate Replay Review on behalf of the Club during a game, unless the Manager cannot perform his Replay Review responsibilities due to injury, illness, ejection, removal or other legitimate reasons, in which case the coach designated to assume the Manager's responsibilities shall have the sole right to request or initiate Replay Review. As used in these Regulations, the term "Manager" refers to a Club's Field Manager or such other person who assumes his duties as described above.
      3. If a Manager wishes to invoke a Manager Challenge with respect to a play or call, the Manager shall approach the Umpire who made the call if only one call is being challenged, or one of the Umpires who made the calls if more than one call is being challenged, or the Crew Chief if the call was made by the entire crew after conferring. The Manager shall approach the appropriate umpire on the field and verbally communicate to him that he wishes to challenge the call.
      4. Upon being prompted by the Umpire, a Manager must immediately inform the Umpire whether he wishes to use his Manager Challenge to invoke Replay Review. If, upon such prompting, the Manager does not immediately respond that he is using his Manager Challenge, then the Umpire shall revoke the Manager's right to challenge any call relating to that play, and the Club shall retain its Manager Challenge.
    3. Crew Chief Reviews. At any time during a game, a Crew Chief may, in his sole discretion, initiate a Replay Review of a potential home run call (as defined in Section V.A below) or of a call involving the application of Official Baseball Rule 7.13 ("Collisions At Home Plate"). Moreover, if a Crew Chief exercises his discretion to initiate Replay Review of a call involving the application of Official Baseball Rule 7.13, the Replay Official shall review any other reviewable call on the runner at home plate on that play (e.g., whether the runner was forced or tagged out at home plate even if Rule 7.13 was not violated). With respect to other reviewable calls (including calls at home plate in which the Crew Chief has not requested Replay Review of a potential Rule 7.13 violation), beginning in the seventh inning, a Crew Chief may, in his sole discretion, conduct Replay Review upon his own initiative or upon the request of a Manager who has no remaining Manager Challenges. These Replay Reviews are subject to the following:
      1. A Club that has exhausted its Manager Challenges may request but cannot insist that the Crew Chief invoke his right to initiate Replay Review.
      2. Except in the case of potential home run calls, the Crew Chief shall not initiate Replay Review of any play or call if the requesting Manager has a Manager Challenge remaining.
    4. Timing of Manager Challenges and Crew Chief Reviews.
      1. Except as otherwise set forth in Sections II.D.2-4 below, to be timely, a Manager must exercise his challenge (by verbal communication to the appropriate Umpire), or the Crew Chief must initiate Replay Review (if applicable pursuant to Section II.C above) before the commencement of the next play or pitch. Such challenge or request will be considered timely only if the Umpire acknowledges that communication within the time period specified above. For purposes of these Regulations, the next "play" shall commence when the pitcher is on the rubber preparing to start his delivery and the batter has entered the batter's box (unless the defensive team initiates an appeal play in which case any call made during the play prior to the appeal still may be subject to Replay Review). A challenge to a play that ends the game must be invoked immediately upon the conclusion of the play, and both Clubs shall remain in their dugouts until the Replay Official issues his decision. No substitutions or pitching changes may take place while the Umpires are in the process of invoking Replay Review.
      2. In the case of a pitching change after the conclusion of a play but before the conclusion of the inning: (a) the defensive manager must exercise his challenge before signaling for a pitching change; and (b) the offensive Manager must exercise his challenge, or the Crew Chief (if applicable pursuant to Section II.C above) must initiate Replay Review, before the relief pitcher steps onto the warning track or, in the case on on-field bullpen areas, crosses the foul line. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Crew Chief shall have the discretion to permit a challenge by the offensive Manager if the Crew Chief determines that the defensive Manager called for a relief pitcher in an accelerated fashion for the sole purpose of preventing the offensive Manager from having a reasonable opportunity to exercise his challenge. The Field Timing Coordinator (see Section II.E below) shall hold up a RED card and communicate via his headset to inform the broadcasters that the mid-inning pitching change break for that game (2:05 or 2:30) has commenced. If the Crew Chief exercises his discretion to permit a challenge by the offensive Manager during a mid-inning pitching change after the Field Timing Coordinator already has signaled for the commencement of a commercial break, the Field Timing Coordinator will inform the Crew Chief to delay announcing the results of Replay Review until after the normal inning break (2:05 or 2:30) has elapsed.
      3. In the case of a play that results in a third-out call, a Manager must immediately run onto the field to notify the Umpire that the Club is contemplating challenging the play (and in all circumstances must be on the field in less than ten (10) seconds from the Umpire's third-out call), and in such cases the Crew Chief shall hold the defensive players on the field. The Manager will have no more than thirty (30) seconds after entering the field to notify an Umpire that he is invoking a challenge. In the case of a play that results in a third-out call and is subject to review at the discretion of the Crew Chief, the Crew Chief must either immediately initiate a Replay Review or signal for an Umpire conference to discuss the play while holding the defensive players on the field. If a Manager who is out of challenges desires to request that the Crew Chief review the play at his discretion, the Manager must immediately run on the field to make such a request.
      4. In the case of a play that results in a Crew Chief review, a Manager who seeks to exercise a challenge with respect to another call from that play which is not otherwise part of the Crew Chief review must invoke his challenge before the Crew Chief makes communication contact with the Replay Official.
      5. If the Crew Chief determines that a Club's invocation of a Manager's Challenge is untimely, the play shall not be reviewed, the Umpire's call shall stand, and the Club shall not be charged with a challenge. The Crew Chief shall have the final authority to determine whether a Manager's Challenge is timely. The judgment of the Crew Chief regarding the timeliness of a Manager's Challenge shall be final and binding on both Clubs, and shall not be reviewable by Replay Review or otherwise.
    5. Inning-Break Mechanics
      1. MLB will hire and assign to each MLB game an on-field director (referred to as a "Field Timing Coordinator"). The Field Timing Coordinator shall be responsible for working with on-field personnel and broadcasters to manage breaks throughout the game. The umpires on the field shall remain solely responsible for managing the game, including managing all inning breaks consistent with past practices, provided that they shall coordinate with the Field Timing Coordinators to ensure that the broadcasters shall be afforded the applicable allotted time for inning breaks (2:05 or 2:30) following close plays involving third outs (whether or not replay review is initiated). The Field Timing Coordinator shall hold up a RED card and communicate via his headset to inform the broadcasters that the inning break for that game (either 2:05 or 2:30) has commenced. No broadcaster should break for commercial until the Field Timing Coordinator provides notification of the commencement of the inning break. The broadcasters shall be afforded the applicable allotted time for all inning breaks for that game (2:05 or 2:30). The Field Timing Coordinator shall notify the broadcasters of the commencement of the inning break as soon as he determines that the third-out call is not subject to challenge, except in the case of a special inning-break activity or event approved by the Commissioner's Office (e.g., "God Bless America") in which case the inning-break will commence at the conclusion of the activity or event. On routine outs, and calls not subject to Replay Review (e.g., strikeouts), the Field Timing Coordinator will notify broadcasters of the inning break immediately upon the third-out call.
        1. On close plays involving third outs, the instant replay rules require that the Manager must immediately run onto the field to notify the Umpire that the Club is contemplating challenging the play (and in all circumstances must be on the field in less than ten (10) seconds from the Umpire's third-out call), and in such cases the Crew Chief shall hold the defensive players on the field. The Manager will have no more than thirty (30) seconds after entering the field to notify an Umpire that he is invoking a challenge.
        2. In the case of a play that results in a third-out call and is subject to review at the discretion of the Crew Chief, the Crew Chief must either immediately initiate a Replay Review or signal for an Umpire conference to discuss the play while holding the defensive players on the field.
        3. Upon observing: (a) the Manager run onto the field; (b) the Crew Chief invoke Replay Review; or (c) the Crew Chief signal to convene a crew conference, the Field Timing Coordinator will delay the commencement of the inning break until the Manager or Crew Chief decides whether to invoke Replay Review.
        4. If a Replay Review is initiated after a third-out call, the broadcasters may not break for commercials until the completion of the review (at the earliest). If the third-out call is reversed, play on the field will continue without a commercial break until the inning is completed. If the third-out call is upheld, the Field Timing Coordinator will notify the broadcasters, Umpires and on-field personnel that the normal inning break (2:05 or 2:30) has commenced by holding up a RED card and by communicating the start of the break via his headset.
        5. If broadcasters adhere to the requirements contained in these Regulations, but Replay Review is invoked during a commercial break, the Field Timing Coordinator will inform the broadcasters via his headset that Replay Review has been invoked, and also will inform the Crew Chief to delay announcing the results of Replay Review until after the normal inning break (2:05 or 2:30) has elapsed. Under these circumstances, if the call on the field is upheld (meaning that the inning is over), normal inning break timings will not be kept; rather, players promptly shall change sides, the defense will engage in normal warm-up activities, and play will resume immediately upon the players and umpires being ready.
      2. Broadcasters should cut to commercial upon the last out of the inning or during pitching changes only when the Field Timing Coordinator provides either visual or oral notification of the start of the break. The Field Timing Coordinator will notify the broadcasters of the time remaining in an inning break or in a pitching change break, and will assist the Umpires in eliminating unnecessary delays in the game when players are not ready to commence play when the break concludes as follows:
        1. The Field Timing Coordinator will time the inning breaks and pitching change breaks from the time that he notifies the broadcasters of the commencement of the 2:05 or 2:30 break. For pitching change breaks, the Field Timing Coordinator will notify the broadcasters of the commencement of the break when the relief pitcher steps onto the warning track or crosses the foul line after exiting the bullpen.
        2. In order to provide the broadcasters, Umpires and players with information regarding the timing of the break, and to prevent the inning from commencing when the broadcasters have not yet returned from commercial, the Field Timing Coordinator shall hold up colored cards as follows:
          1. The Field Timing Coordinator will hold up a RED card to signal when an inning break or pitching change break commences.
          2. The Field Timing Coordinator will hold up a BLUE card to signal when the pitcher should throw his last warm-up pitch (with forty-five (45) seconds remaining in the break).
          3. The Field Timing Coordinator will hold up a YELLOW card when the batter should leave the on-deck circle to approach the batter's box (with twentyfive (25) seconds remaining in the break).
          4. The Field Timing Coordinator will hold up a GREEN card to indicate that the break has concluded. The Umpire shall not resume play until the Field Timing Coordinator holds up the GREEN Card.
    6. Delay of Game.
      1. On-field personnel may not intentionally delay the game in order to provide their Club with additional time to challenge a play. In this regard, access to video in the clubhouse shall not be used by a Manager to delay an appropriate challenge. Moreover, following a close or controversial play, all on-field personnel are expected to promptly take their positions for the next play, and obey the directives of the Umpires.
      2. If an Umpire believes that a Manager, coach or player is intentionally delaying the start of the next play in order to provide his Club with additional time to invoke a challenge, the Umpire may require the Manager to immediately make a decision on the challenge, and issue a warning to the Manager. After issuing a warning, the Crew Chief shall have the discretion to rescind a Club's challenge if the Club again intentionally delays the commencement of play. The Commissioner may impose off-field sanctions on Clubs that violate this provision.
    7. Challenge of a Reviewable Play by Both Managers.
      1. Both Managers may challenge different reviewable calls within the same reviewable play. These challenges may be in the form of a Manager's Challenge or a request for a Crew Chief review, to the extent available.
      2. The Replay Official shall review all challenges properly initiated, and shall review the challenged calls in the order in which the calls occurred during the game. If the decision of the Replay Official on an earlier reviewable call renders moot a later reviewable call, the Replay Official shall not review the subsequent call. If a call challenged by a Club is not reviewed by the Replay Official by operation of the foregoing rule, that Manager's Challenge shall be deemed rescinded and the Club shall not be charged with the challenge.
      3. If Manager Challenges by both Clubs are not invoked simultaneously, the second Club must invoke its challenge before the Crew Chief makes communication contact with the Replay Official; provided, however, that any Club adversely affected by a Replay Official's decision to change a call has the right to use a Manager's Challenge or request that a Crew Chief review another reviewable call in the same play, provided that (a) the Manager of the adversely affected Club makes the Manager's Challenge or requests the Crew Chief review immediately after the announcement of the Replay Official's decision, (b) the change of the initial call affects the relevance of the subsequent call to the outcome of the play, and (c) the Club adversely affected by the change in the initial call had no incentive to seek Replay Review of the subsequent call until after the Replay Official reversed the initial call.

        Example 1. With two outs and no one on base, the Umpires call a line drive hit to the outfield a trap, but calls the batter-runner out when trying to advance to second base. The defensive Club had no incentive to challenge the trap call because the batter-runner was called out at second base to end the inning. However, if the offensive Club challenges the tag call at second base, and the Replay Official overturns the call, the defensive Club will be afforded the opportunity to challenge or request review of the trap call in the outfield by informing the Crew Chief of the challenge or request immediately after learning of the Replay Official's decision.

        Example 2. With one out and a runner on second, the batter hits a long fly ball to center field that is caught. The runner on second, who had rounded third base at the time of the catch, fails to retouch third base on his way back to second base. He is tagged out at second base. The defensive Club had no incentive to appeal or otherwise challenge the runner's failure to retouch third base because the runner was called out at second base to end the inning. However, if the offensive Club challenges the tag call at second base, and the Replay Official overturns the call, the defensive Club will be afforded the opportunity to challenge the runner's failure to retouch third base. Because that play is an appeal play within the meaning of the Official Baseball Rules, the defensive Club must first appeal the play. If the Umpire calls the runner safe at third on such appeal, the defensive Club then will be afforded the opportunity to challenge the appeal play by informing the Crew Chief of the challenge immediately after the safe call.
      4. If any of the conditions set forth in Section II.G.3 above is met and an additional call within a single play is subject to its own subsequent Replay Review and the decision by the Replay Official renders irrelevant a Manager's Challenge previously used by the opposing Manager on that play, then the opposing Manager's previous challenge shall be deemed rescinded and the Club shall not be charged with such challenge.

        Example. With two outs and a runner on first, the batter hits a fly ball the outfield that is ruled "no catch," and the runner is called "out" trying to reach third base, which results in the third out of the inning. The offensive Manager challenges the call at third base, and the Replay Official determines that the runner was safe. The defensive Manager then challenges the "no catch" call on the batted ball to the outfield, and the Replay Official overturns the call to a "catch," which results in the third out of the inning. The offensive Manager's challenge of the call on the runner at third base is irrelevant because the batter is out by virtue of the fly ball being caught in the outfield, and therefore such previous challenge on the play would be deemed rescinded.
    8. Effect of Replay Review Result on Post-Play Decision by Manager. If a call is overturned on Replay Review, any decision made by a Manager after the play and influenced by the incorrect call shall be nullified. Such Manager shall be permitted to reaffirm or change his strategic decision based on the result of the play as determined by the Replay Official.

      Example 1. The defensive Manager signals for a pitching change after a play and, subsequently, the offensive Manager timely initiates a challenge or the Crew Chief initiates Replay Review. The Replay Review results in an overturned call. Any pitching change, or attempted pitching change, made by the defensive Manager shall be nullified unless reaffirmed by him after the Replay Official's decision is announced.

      Example 2. With no outs and a runner on third base, the batter's bat hits the catcher's glove as he swings at a pitch and catcher's interference is called. On the swing, a fly ball is hit to left field and caught. The runner on third base tags up and scores on a close play at the plate. Pursuant to Official baseball Rule 6.08(c), because of the catcher's interference, the offensive Manager may elect either the interference penalty (i.e., batter awarded first base and runner returns to third base) or the result of the play (i.e., batter is out and runner scores). The offensive Manager elects to accept the result of the play. The defensive Manager then challenges the call at home plate, and the Replay Official overturns the call and rules the runner out at home plate. Knowing the final result of the play as determined by the Replay Official, the offensive Manager's decision to accept the result of the play shall be nullified unless reaffirmed by him after the Replay Official's decision is announced.
    9. Specificity of the Challenge. When invoking a Manager's Challenge or otherwise requesting a Crew Chief review, the Manager must inform the Umpire of the specific calls for which he is seeking Replay Review but need not state the reason for his belief that the call was incorrect. (For example, in order to challenge an "out" call on a force play at first base, the Manager need not state that the throw pulled the fielder off the bag, the runner reached first base before the ball was caught, etc.) Moreover, the Replay Official shall have no authority to review any calls other than those included in a Manager's Challenge or those accepted for review by the Crew Chief.

      Example. A runner is called safe in a rundown because the Umpire rules that the fielder missed a tag. The defensive Club challenges the tag call with a Manager's Challenge. During Replay Review, the Replay Official confirms that the tag was missed, but observes that the runner who was called safe was passed by a preceding runner in violation of Official Baseball Rule 7.08(h). The Replay Official cannot correct the Umpires' non-call regarding the passed runner because the Manager only challenged the tag call.
    10. Communicating with the Replay Official and the Public.
      1. The Crew Chief shall signal that a play is under Replay Review pursuant to a Manager's Challenge or Crew Chief discretion by pointing in the direction of the headset technician and walking toward him. The Crew Chief and another Umpire (either the calling Umpire or another Umpire if the Crew Chief is the calling umpire) shall move immediately towards the designated communication location where they will have access to headsets or other appropriate equipment to communicate with the Replay Official, the home public address announcer and the television broadcasters.
      2. The Crew Chief shall communicate with the Replay Official (on a twoway line) regarding the calls subject to the Replay Review, and provide each other with any information as the Crew Chief or Replay Official may deem relevant to Replay Review. About the same time, the Umpire accompanying the Crew Chief also shall communicate with the home Club's public address announcer (on a two-way line) regarding the calls subject to Replay Review simply for the purpose of identifying, in general terms, the call(s) under review. (The television broadcasters of the game will be able to listen to the communication between this Umpire and the public address announcer on a one-way line.) After speaking with the public address announcer, the Umpire accompanying the Crew Chief will be placed in direct communication with the Replay Official and the Crew Chief.
      3. The Replay Official will review the calls subject to the Replay Review in accordance with these Regulations, and inform the Crew Chief of his decision either to change the call on the field, confirm the call on the field or let stand the call on the field due to the lack of clear and convincing evidence to change it. If a call is changed by Replay Review, the Replay Official also shall inform the Crew Chief of any placement of runners or such other actions as may be necessary in the Replay Official's judgment to place both Clubs in the same position that they would have been in had the changed call been correct in the first instance.
      4. Upon receipt of the decision by the Replay Official, the Crew Chief will, by signal or otherwise, announce the Replay Official's decision to the Clubs, including the placement of runners or such other actions. (Prior to this time, it shall be permissible for the pitcher to throw warm-up pitches and for position players to engage in other warm-up activities.) If the Crew Chief believes that the decision of the Replay Official warrants it, the Crew Chief or other Umpire involved in the Replay Review may personally inform one or both Managers of the decision before play on the field is resumed. After the Replay Official communicates his decision to the Crew Chief, the BAM technician (with the advice and assistance of the Replay Official, if requested) shall communicate the Replay Official's decision to the home Club's public address announcer (on a two-way line), and television broadcasters of the game will be able to listen to such communication on a one-way line.
      5. If there is specific video that allows a Replay Official to definitively conclude that the call should be overturned or confirmed (as opposed to letting the call stand in the absence of video that provides clear and convincing evidence to overturn it), the definitive video used by the Replay Official in making his decision will be sent to the ballpark (to be accessible by the television broadcasters and scoreboard operator). Otherwise, no further video from the challenged play may be shown at the ballpark after the Replay Review decision has been announced.
      6. The Crew Chief may communicate with the Replay Official at any time during a game for purposes of: (a) record-keeping (i.e., to review the ball-strike count to a batter, the number of outs in an inning, and the score of the game); (b) determining whether a player or players properly were substituted for during a game pursuant to Official Baseball Rules 3.03, 3.04, 3.05, 3.08, and/or 4.04; (c) determining, after appeal, whether a batter fails to bat in his proper turn, and another batter completes a time at bat in his place, in violation of Official Baseball Rule 6.07; or (d) confirming that an Umpire's decision on the field was consistent with the Official Baseball Rules under circumstances in which the misapplication of the rule(s) being checked could result in a protest of the game pursuant to Official Baseball Rule 4.19. If the Crew Chief approaches the headset technician without pointing in his direction to signal the start of Replay Review, the Official Scorer may presume that Replay Review is not being sought, and instead that the Umpire is seeking a record-keeping, illegal substitution, batting out of order or rules check as set forth above. Any communication with the Replay Official pursuant to this paragraph shall be in the sole discretion of the Crew Chief. A Manager may not direct, require or argue with the Crew Chief to communicate with the Replay Official for such purposes, and such conduct will subject the Manager to ejection from the game. Any communication regarding a video review of the facts underlying the Umpire's decision must be consistent with the limitations on challenges and reviewable calls consistent with these Regulations. Unless otherwise provided for by these Regulations, no Replay Review shall ever be permitted on judgment decisions by the Umpire.
    11. Irrevocable and Final.
      1. Once a Manager informs an Umpire that he wishes to exercise a Manager's Challenge, it may not be rescinded.
      2. The decision of the Replay Official to either uphold or change one or more calls subject to Replay Review, and any decisions as to the placement of runners or other necessary actions to be taken, shall be final and binding on both Clubs and is not subject to further review or revision.
      3. Once Replay Review is initiated, no uniformed personnel from either Club shall be permitted to further argue the contested calls or the decision of the Replay Official. Onfield personnel who violate this provision shall be ejected.
      4. Official Baseball Rule 4.19 shall have no applicability to these Replay Regulations. No protest shall ever be permitted on judgment decisions by the Replay Official. Moreover, a violation of any rule or procedure set forth herein shall not constitute a basis for protesting a game.
      5. In circumstances in which Replay Review is not available (e.g., the call is not reviewable, no Manager Challenge or Crew Chief review is available or, after the seventh inning, the Crew Chief has communicated that he has declined to initiate Replay Review), if a manager, coach, or player makes reference to having observed a video replay that purportedly contradicts the call under dispute, such person is subject to immediate ejection from the game.
  3. Standard for Changing a Call

    To change a reviewable call, the Replay Official must determine that there is clear and convincing evidence to change the original call that was made on the field of play. In other words, the original decision of the Umpire shall stand unchanged unless the evidence obtained by the Replay Official leads him to definitively conclude that the call on the field was incorrect.

  4. Correcting an Incorrect Call

    Consistent with Official Baseball Rule 9.02(c), if Replay Review results in a change to a call that had been made on the field, the Replay Official, to the extent feasible, shall exercise his discretion to place both Clubs in the same position they would have been in had the call on the field been correct. This shall include placing runners where he thinks those runners would have been at the conclusion of the reviewed play if the reviewed call had been correctly made in the first instance, disregarding interference or obstruction that may have occurred on the play, failures of runners to tag up based upon the initial call on the field, runners passing other runners, missing bases, etc.

    1. Placement of Runners.
      1. Replay Official's Responsibility. All decisions regarding the placement of base runners resulting from a call that is overturned pursuant to these Regulations shall be made by the Replay Official in accordance with the standard set forth in the Official Baseball Rules.
      2. Book Awards & Discretion. Unless directed otherwise by the Official Baseball Rules (for example, Official Baseball Rules 6.09(d)-(h), 7.04(c) Comment, and 7.05(f)), the Replay Official shall place the base runners on the bases he believes they would have reached had the reviewed call been made correctly. (For example, Official Baseball Rule 3.16 Comment states: "Batter and runners shall be placed where in the umpire's judgment they would have been had the interference not occurred." Rule 7.06(a) states: "[A]ll runners shall advance, without liability to be put out, to the bases they would have reached, in the umpire's judgment, if there had been no obstruction.") Any doubt regarding the placement of runners should be resolved in favor of the last base legally touched at the time of the challenged call. More than one base should not be awarded unless it is obvious to the Replay Official that a runner would have safely advanced beyond one base had the call been made correctly, or the Official Baseball Rules otherwise require such advancement.
      3. Factors to Consider. The Replay Official should consider several factors when placing the runners, including: (a) the depth of fly balls; (b) the speed of runners; (c) the location of runners on the field when the play occurred; (d) the number of outs at the time of the play; and (e) whether the incorrect call affected the subsequent behavior or conduct of the offensive or defensive players.
      4. Subsequent Calls and Outs. If the Replay Official determines that an incorrect call on the field had no effect on the subsequent behavior or conduct of the offensive or defensive players, the Replay Official shall change the incorrect call but let stand the on-field calls made on the runner(s) unaffected by the incorrect call. No runner may be declared out by the Replay Official if no play was attempted on, or call made regarding, that runner (e.g., umpire cannot assume that a fielder would have thrown a runner out).
      5. Scoring. The Replay Official shall determine whether base runners would have scored had the call been made correctly, and award or nullify runs scored by a Club where appropriate.
      6. Final and Binding. The decision of the Replay Official regarding the placement of runners, or runners being declared out, shall be final and binding on both Clubs. On-field personnel shall be ejected if they argue or otherwise challenge the placement of runners.
  5. Reviewable Calls

    The only calls eligible for Replay Review are set forth in this Section V. Calls not identified below may not be reviewed at any time, but nothing contained herein shall limit the Umpires in their ability to convene the crew on the field to further discuss any play consistent with Official Baseball Rule 9.02. (Attached to these Regulations is a non-exhaustive list of calls that are not subject to video replay review).

    If a Manager challenges a call that is not eligible for review, the Crew Chief will inform him that the call is not reviewable, and the Club shall not be charged with a challenge. To the extent the Crew Chief is unsure of whether a call challenged by a Manager is eligible for review, he may consult with the Replay Official prior to making the determination. If either the Club or Crew Chief invokes Replay Review of a call that the Replay Official determines is not subject to Replay Review, he will inform the Crew Chief that the play is not reviewable and the Club will not be charged with a challenge. To the extent that the Official Baseball Rules require the defensive Club to appeal a play eligible for replay review (e.g., a runner missing a base), Replay Review may not be initiated until the Umpires rule on the appeal.

    1. Potential Home Run Calls. The Umpires' decision to call or not call a home run may be reviewed if there is a question as to whether the ball left the playing field or struck an object; whether the ball struck the top of a fence, hit a railing or otherwise stayed within the field of play; whether the ball was interfered with by a fan reaching over the fence; or whether the ball was fair or foul.
    2. Non-Home Run Boundary Calls. Calls involving a decision regarding whether a live ball (1) bounces out of the field of play; (2) strikes the top of a fence or hits a railing or other obstacle in the ballpark; (3) is interfered with by a fan reaching over the fence; (4) is successfully caught by a fielder proximate to a stadium boundary (e.g., while falling into the stands); or (5) leaves the field of play and becomes a dead ball.
    3. Specified Fair/Foul Ball Calls. Calls involving a decision regarding whether a batted ball was "A FOUL BALL," within the meaning of Official Baseball Rule 2.00 but only with respect to balls that first land at or beyond the set positions of the first or third base Umpire. (In the case of a three-man crew, the home plate Umpire has the discretion to determine where the first or third base Umpire would have been set for the purpose of determining whether a fair/foul ball call is reviewable.) Line drives fielded by a defensive player in the infield and balls that first land in front of the set positions of the first or third base Umpire shall not be subject to review. The Umpire shall determine whether a purported foul ball landed in front of his position and thus is not subject to review. Such a determination by the Umpire is not reviewable.
    4. Force/Tag Play Calls. Calls involving a defensive player's attempt to put out a runner or batter-runner by tagging the runner or batter-runner or touching a base, and/or whether or not the runner acquired the base. When reviewing such calls, the Replay Official shall determine that a fielder has caught the ball, consistent with Official Baseball Rule 2.00, at the point in time that the ball touches the fielder's hand or glove (so long as the fielder maintains possession of the ball from the point of contact and thereafter).

      Notwithstanding the foregoing, the following calls will not be subject to review:

      1. The Umpire's judgment that a runner is clearly out on a force play at second base under circumstances in which the defensive player may or may not have touched second base in his attempt to complete a double play and avoid a collision with the runner. All other elements of the call shall be subject to review, including whether the fielder caught the ball, had control of the ball, was drawn off the bag, or tagged the runner. In this regard, a determination as to whether the fielder made a catch before dropping the ball while in the act of making a throw following the catch shall be reviewable.
      2. The Umpire's judgment on whether a base runner left early when tagging up.
      3. The Umpire's judgment on whether a base runner rounded first base in an attempt to advance to second base.
      4. The Umpire's judgment on whether a base runner abandoned his effort to advance in accordance with Official Baseball Rule 7.08(a)(2).
    5. Catch Plays In The Outfield. An Umpire's decision whether a fielder caught a fly ball or line drive in flight in the outfield before it hit the ground (or an object other than the fielder.) See Official Baseball Rule 2.00 ("Definition of Terms"; "A CATCH"; and "IN FLIGHT".) Fly balls or line drives fielded by a defensive player in the infield shall not be eligible for review. Any outfielder who stations himself in the infield on the play shall be considered an infielder for the purpose of this Regulation. A fly ball (but not a line drive) touched by an infielder (other than the pitcher or catcher) in an area behind the original positioning of the nearest infielder (other than the pitcher or catcher) shall be considered a fly ball or line drive in the outfield subject to review. The Umpire shall determine whether a call is reviewable under this provision. Such a determination by the Umpire is not reviewable.
    6. Base Running. The following base running calls are reviewable:
      1. Calls involving whether a base runner passes a preceding runner before such runner is out in violation of Rule 7.08(h);
      2. Determinations of whether a base runner scored ahead of a third out (see Rule 4.09(a)); and
      3. Upon an appropriate appeal by the defensive Club, whether a base runner touched a base (see Rule 7.10(b) and Comment).


      4. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this Section F or elsewhere in these Regulations, in accordance with Official Baseball Rule 9.02(c), when reviewing a play at home plate, if the Replay Official determines both that the runner did not touch home plate and that the fielder did not tag the runner (or, in the case of a force play, did not touch home plate), the Replay Official shall rule the runner "safe" at home plate unless the defensive Manager appeals the failure of the runner to touch home plate prior to the Crew Chief making contact with the Replay Official.

        Example. A runner attempts to score on a play at the plate. The catcher misses the tag on the runner, and the runner fails to touch home plate, but the umpire calls a tag and the runner "out." The offensive manager challenges the call, and the Replay Official determines that the catcher missed the tag. The Replay Official shall disregard the failure of the runner to touch home plate, declare the runner "safe" and score the run.

    7. Hit By Pitch. Those plays for which there is a possibility that a pitched ball touches a batter, or his clothing. See, e.g., Rules 5.09(a) and 6.08(b). Any doubt as to whether a pitched ball hit the bat (as opposed to the batter or his clothing) should be resolved by the Home Plate Umpire at that moment as hitting the bat and not the batter, and the Umpire should declare a fair or foul ball under the circumstances. Notwithstanding the foregoing, whether the ball was in the strike zone when it touched the batter, and whether the batter made any attempt to avoid being touched by the ball, shall not be reviewable. See Rule 6.08(b).

      Example 1. A pitch strikes the batter, but the Umpire erroneously rules that the pitch struck the bat instead and rules "foul ball." The Manager on offense appropriately invokes replay and the Replay Official reverses the call. The Crew Chief shall declare the ball dead at the moment it struck the batter and rule accordingly.

      Example 2. A pitch strikes the bat, but the Umpire erroneously rules "hit batter – dead ball." The Manager on defense appropriately invokes replay and the Replay Official reverses the call. If the ball lands foul, the Replay Official shall call the ball "foul." If the ball lands fair, the Replay Official may take into consideration whether the defensive team attempts to retire the batter-runner, whether the batter-runner attempts to take a base, the batter-runner's attempt to deceive the defensive team and the Umpires on the field, and other relevant factors, in placing the batter-runner, calling him out (consistent with Section IV.A.4 above), or calling the ball "foul" (if a "foul ball" ruling would result in a third strike, the pitch would be replayed).

    8. Collisions At Home Plate. An Umpire's decision to call or not call a violation of Official Baseball Rule 7.13.

      Example 1. A runner collides with a catcher and touches home plate on a close play at home plate, but the home plate Umpire calls the runner out for having violated Official Baseball Rule 7.13. The Crew Chief exercises his discretion to initiate a Replay Review. If the Replay Official overturns the call that Rule 7.13 was violated, then he also shall determine whether the runner was tagged or forced out before touching home plate.

      Example 2. A runner collides with a catcher and is called safe at home plate. The Manager on defense requests that the Crew Chief initiate Replay Review in order to determine whether the runner should have been ruled out for violating Official Baseball Rule 7.13, and the Crew Chief declines to do so. The Manager on defense shall be permitted to exercise an available challenge regarding the call as to whether the runner was tagged or forced out before touching home plate.

  6. Technology and Personnel
    1. Available Video. For each game, the following camera feeds will be available to the Replay Official: (1) the home and away local broadcast feeds, (2) national broadcast feeds when available, (3) up to six additional camera feeds from both the home and away local broadcasters, and (4) a high-home camera feed.
    2. Replay Officials.
      1. Staffing. A Replay Official will be assigned to all Championship Season, All-Star and Post-Season games played in the 30 Major League ballparks (and, beginning in 2015, in any ballpark at which a Major League Championship Season game is played). The Office of the Commissioner shall assign supervisory personnel, and Major League Baseball Advanced Media ("BAM") shall assign technicians to assist with the review process. The Office of the Commissioner may publicly disclose, by crew only, the identities of the Umpires who are serving as Replay Officials on a given day, but shall not disclose the identity of any umpire making a specific replay decision.
      2. Review Process. After video review is initiated, the Replay Official, working with a BAM technician, will immediately begin the review process. The Replay Official shall review video and (if available) audio. The Replay Official shall not have direct control of the monitors or computer but will be assisted by a technician who will operate the technology equipment.
    3. Technology.
      1. Technical Issues. In the event that the Replay Review system is not operational for all or part of a game, each ballpark will have available an alternative method of conducting video review at the ballpark pursuant to procedures distributed by the Office of the Commissioner. If it is not feasible to utilize the alternative review system, the Office of the Commissioner, in consultation with the Crew Chief, will determine whether to play the game without the availability of video replay review, or modify the review process or procedures in order to permit video replay review to be conducted. In the event that video replay review is not available in a game, the Crew Chief shall inform both Managers and the press box, and a public address announcement shall be made to that effect.
      2. In-Park Video. The home and visiting Clubs will be provided the same live telecast feeds used by the Replay Officials at BAM to assist them in determining whether to challenge a play. If either the home or visiting Club loses access to the telecast feeds due to technical issues, such Club should immediately contact the appropriate technical support contact (as referenced in the Clubhouse Video Technical Support guidelines issued by the Commissioner's Office) who shall attempt to acquire (or re-acquire) the telecast feeds using built-in system redundancy that allows the home and visiting systems to share video feeds in the case of an outage. The dugout phone will be connected to the video review location. If the dugout phone does not work at any point during the game, upon notifying the home plate Umpire, the Manager shall be permitted to communicate with his Club's video review location via walkie-talkie. On-field personnel in the dugout may not discuss any issue with individuals in their video review room using the dugout phone other than whether to challenge a play subject to video replay review.
      3. Scoreboard. Video replays will be available for use on the ballpark scoreboard and may be displayed in accordance with the applicable Major League Baseball regulations. Umpires are prohibited from using video replay on the in-park scoreboard as a basis to change a call on the field (whether by crew consultation or otherwise).
      4. Games at Alternate Venues. Subject to its obligations with the Major League Baseball Players Association and the World Umpires Association, the Office of the Commissioner reserves the right to determine whether replay will be used, and if so what procedures will apply, for any Major League games not played in one of the 30 Major League ballparks.
      5. Communications. Communications between or among Umpires on the field and Replay Officials and other replay personnel shall not be recorded or used for any purpose other than conducting Replay Reviews.
    4. Official Scorer. Nothing contained herein shall abrogate the sole authority of the Official Scorer to make all decisions concerning the application of Official Baseball Rule 10 based on the rulings of the Replay Official and/or the Umpires on the field. See Official Baseball Rule 10.01(a).